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Michigan Sports and Spine

Arthritis

Overview
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. A joint is the area where two bones meet. There are over 100 different types of arthritis.  Arthritis involves the breakdown of cartilage. Cartilage normally protects a joint, allowing it to move smoothly. Cartilage also absorbs shock when pressure is placed on the joint, such as when you walk. Without the normal amount of cartilage, the bones rub together, causing pain, swelling (inflammation), and stiffness.

Causes
Autoimmune disease
Broken bone
General "wear and tear"
Infection

Symptoms
Joint pain
Joint swelling
Reduced ability to move the joint
Redness of the skin around a joint
Stiffness, especially in the morning
Warmth around a joint

Diagnosis
Physical examination and medical history consultation
X-rays
Lab tests

Treatment
Lifestyle changes
Physical therapy
OTC medications
Corticosteroids
Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs
Biologic medications
Surgery

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002223/

 

Bursitis

Overview
Bursitis is a painful condition that affects the small fluid-filled pads — called bursae (bur-SEE) — that act as cushions among your bones and the tendons and muscles near your joints. Bursitis occurs when bursae become inflamed.

Causes
Repetitive motions or positions that irritate the bursae around a joint (ex. throwing a baseball, leaning on elbows, kneeling)
Infection
Aging
Rheumatoid arthritis, gout, diabetes

Symptoms
Aching or stiffness of the affected joint
Increased pain when affected joint is moved or pressed on
Swelling
Redness

Diagnosis
Physical examination and medical history consultation
X-rays
MRI
Lab tests

Treatment
Rest
Ice
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications
Antibiotics (if caused by infection)
Physical therapy
Corticosteroid injections
Surgery

Source: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bursitis/DS00032/DSECTION=lifestyle-and-home-remedies

 

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Overview
Chronic fatigue syndrome refers to severe, continued tiredness that is not relieved by rest and is not directly caused by other medical conditions.

Causes
Unknown
Theories suggest: Epstein-Barr virus or human herpes virus -6, inflammation in the nervous system
Risk factors include: age, previous illness, stress, genetics, environmental factors

Symptoms
Muscle aches
Headache
Extreme fatigue
Feeling extremely tired for more than 24 hours after exercise that would normally be considered easy
Feeling unrefreshed after sleeping for a proper amount of time
Forgetfulness
Concentration problems
Confusion
Joint pain but no swelling or redness
Irritability
Mild fever
Muscle aches
Muscle weakness
Sore throat
Sore lymph noes

Diagnosis
Physical examination and medical history consultation
Ruling out of other possible causes of fatigue
Brain MRI
White blood cell count

Treatment
Cognitive-behavioral therapy
Healthy diet
Sleep management techniques
Medications to reduce pain, discomfort, and fever
Medications to treat anxiety
Medications to treat depression
Lifestyle changes
Relaxation and stress-reduction techniques

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002224/

 

Degenerative Joint Disease

Overview
Degenerative joint disease is also known as osteoarthritis.  It is the most common joint disorder, which is due to aging and wear and tear on a joint.

Causes
Aging
"Wear and tear" on a joint
Genetics
Obesity
Injuries
Occupational risks
Sports
Bleeding disorders
Other types of arthritis

Symptoms
Pain and stiffness in the joints
Pain that is worse in the morning, after exercise, and when pressure is placed on the joint
Rubbing, grating, or crackling sound when moving the joint

Diagnosis
Physical examination and medical history consultation
X-rays

Treatment
OTC pain relievers
Corticosteroid injections
Capsaicin
Artificial joint fluid injections
Lifestyle changes
Physical therapy
Braces
Surgery

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001460/

 

Dislocation

Overview
A dislocation is an injury to a joint — a place where two or more of your bones come together — in which the ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions. This injury temporarily deforms and immobilizes your joint and may result in sudden and severe pain.

Causes
Sports injuries
Trauma
Falls

Symptoms
Visible deformation
Swelling
Discoloration
Intense pain
Immovability

Diagnosis
Physical examination and medical history consultation
X-ray
MRI

Treatments
Reduction (placing bone back in position)
Application of ice and heat
Rest
Immobilization
Pain medication
Surgery
Rehabilitation

Source: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/dislocation/DS00239

 

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