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Michigan Sports and Spine

Osteoporosis

Overview
Osteoporosis is the most common type of bone disease.  It occurs when the body fails to form enough new bone, when too much old bone is reabsorbed by the body, or both.  As you age, calcium and phosphate, which are essential for normal bone formation, may be absorbed back into the body from the bones which makes the bone tissue weaker.  This can result in brittle, fragile bones that are prone to fractures even without injury.  Women over age 50 and men over age 70 are at the highest risk for osteoporosis.

Causes
Drop in estrogen in women at the time of menopause
Drop in testosterone in men
Rheumatoid arthritis
Cronic kidney disease
Eating disorders
Taking corticosteroids or some anti seizure drugs
Hyperparathyroidism
Vitamin D deficiency
Genetics
Absence of menstrual periods for long periods of time
Drinking a large amount of alcohol
Hormone treatments for prostate or breast cancer
Low body weight
Smoking
Too little calcium in the diet

Symptoms
Bone pain or tenderness
Fractures with little or no trauma
Loss of height over time
Low back pain
Neck pain
Stooped posture

Diagnosis
Bone mineral density testing
Spinal CT scan
X-rays
Blood or urine tests

Treatment
Bisphosphonate medications
Calcitonin
Hormone replacement therapy
Parathyroid hormone
Raloxifene
Exercise
Diet
Stopping smoking
Reducing alcohol intake

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001400/

 

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