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Michigan Sports and Spine

Cervical Dystonia

Overview
Cervical dystonia is also known as spasmodic torticollis.  Dystonia occurs when opposing muscles are contracting simultaneously causing twisting movements and awkward posture of the head and neck.  The movements may be sustained, jerky, or a combination.  Spasms in the muscles or pinched nerves in the beck can result in considerable pain and discomfort.

Symptoms
Involuntary contraction of neck muscles
Abnormal postures of the head and neck
Jerky head movements

Causes
Genetics
Trauma

Diagnosis
Physical examination

Treatment
Injections
Anticholingeric or dopaninergic drugs
Surgery
Physical therapy

Source: http://www.dystonia-foundation.org/pages/cervical_dystonia_more_info/46.php

 

Cervical Radiculopathy

Overview
Cervical radiculopathy is nerve irritation caused by damage to the discs between the vertebrae in the cervical spine. The seven vertebrae between the head and the chest make up the cervical spine.  Can result in a herniated disc and/or sciatica.

Causes
Degeneration of the outer ring of the disc
Traumatic injury

Symptoms
Neck pain
Weakness in the neck, shoulders, chest, arms, and hands
Numbness and tingling

Diagnosis
EMG
X-rays
CT scan
MRI

Treatment
Anti-inflammatory and pain medications
Cortisone injections
Physical therapy
Surgery

Source: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=26093

 

Degenerative Disc Disease

Overview
Degenerative disc disease refers to a condition in which pain is caused from a damaged disc. Spinal discs are like shock absorbers between the bones of the spine. Degenerative disc disease occurs when these discs wear down. This happens to nearly everyone due to aging, but only some people experience severe symptoms.

Symptoms
Pain that is worse when sitting
Pain that is worse when bending, lifting, or twisting
Lessening of pain when walking, running, changing positions often, or lying down
Pain that comes and goes and ranges in severity from day to day
Pain in the low back, buttocks and thighs or the neck, radiating to the arms and hands
Numbness and tingling in the extremities
Weakness in the leg muscles or foot drop

Causes
Aging
Daily activities and sports
Injury or trauma

Diagnosis
Physical examination
MRI or CT scan

Treatment
Physical therapy
Drug therapies
Electrotherapy
Back braces
Activity modification
Surgery

Source: http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Health-Conditions/Degenerative-Disc-Disease.aspx

 

 

Facet Joint Syndrome

Overview
Facet joint syndrome is the swelling and inflammation of the tissue between the joints of the spine.

Symptoms
Pain and stiffness when turning from left to right
Headaches
Pain in the lower back, buttocks or thighs

Causes
Injury
Arthritis

Diagnosis
Injection of an anti-inflammatory and anesthetic. Immediate relief confirms facet joint syndrome.

Treatment
Steroid injections
Anti-inflammatory drugs
Physical therapy
Use of braces
Surgery

Source: http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Health-Conditions/Facet-Joint-Syndrome.aspx

 

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Herniated Disc

Overview
Your backbone, or spine, is made up of 26 bones called vertebrae. In between them are soft disks filled with a jelly-like substance. These disks cushion the vertebrae and keep them in place. A herniated disk is a disk that slips out of place or ruptures. If it presses on a nerve, it can cause back pain or sciatica.

Symptoms
Back pain that spreads to the buttocks and legs (if herniated disc is in the lower back)
Neck pain that spreads to the shoulders and upper arms (if the herniated disc is in the upper back)
Tingling or numbness
Muscle spasms or weakness

Causes
Aging
Trauma
Genetic predisposition

Diagnosis
X-ray
MRI or CT scan
EMG

Treatment
Activity modification
Anti-inflammatory drugs
Injections
Physical therapy
Surgery

Source: http://www.aans.org/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Herniated%20Disc.aspx

 

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